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高考命题有什么原则?
来源:http://www.lushipeixun.com 发布时间:2019-05-05

2019高考命题开始,每年的4月之后,高考命题人员就开始遴选、确定,4月底、5月初高考命题工作正式开展,正式命题大概持续半个月左右,剩下的时间用来微调和印刷。山东高考一对一辅导今天将带着大家一起来揭开“2019高考”的神秘面纱,给大家讲述一下高考命题的原则都有哪些,希望对大家有所帮助!
The proposition of the College Entrance Examination in 2019 begins. Every year after April, the propositioners of the College Entrance Examination begin to select and determine. At the end of April and the beginning of May, the proposition of the College Entrance Examination is officially carried out. The formal proposition lasts about half a month, and the rest of the time is spent on fine-tuning and printing. Today, one-to-one tutoring of Shandong College Entrance Examination will bring you together to uncover the mysterious veil of "College Entrance Examination 2019", and tell you what are the principles of college entrance examination proposition, hoping to help you!
1.一切以教材和大纲为准
1. All textbooks and outlines shall prevail.
高考出题时要求每一道题,无论大小,一定要在考纲上有相应的考点对应;其题意、描述、问题、解答都必须能够在教材上找到援引。考纲的内容每大块都要覆盖,而且要注重交叉,各有侧重。知识点的考频,也可以在《考试大纲》上查到。
In the college entrance examination, every question, regardless of its size, must have corresponding test points on the syllabus; its meaning, description, questions and answers must be able to find quotation in the textbook. The content of the syllabus should be covered in every block, and the emphasis should be laid on cross-cutting. The frequency of knowledge points can also be found in the Examination Outline.
这说明,当复习接近尾声的时候,回归教材、仔细阅读《考试大纲》和《考试说明》是有多重要。
This shows how important it is to return to the textbook and read the Examination Outline and the Examination Instructions carefully when the review is near the end.
2.尽量不出怪题、偏题
2. Try not to get rid of strange or partial questions.
命题人出题时会考虑该题对考生来说难度系数是否偏大,原则上不出怪题、偏题,主要在命题角度、方法、题型上下功夫。
When proposing a question, the proposer will consider whether the difficulty coefficient of the question is too large for the examinee. In principle, there are no strange or biased questions. He mainly works on the angle, method and type of the proposition.
3.要体现选拔性和区分度
3. Reflect selection and differentiation
那些让大多数学生感到为难的题恰恰抓住了多数学生在某一知识点上的短处,即所谓“软肋”,目的正是让优秀的学生脱颖而出。这也就是所谓的“区分度”。
The problems that make most students feel embarrassed just grasp the shortcomings of many mathematics students at a certain point of knowledge, namely the so-called "soft rib", in order to make excellent students stand out. This is the so-called "discrimination".
高考是选拔性考试,目的是把考生按成绩分层,便于高校挑选。平时的测验或模拟基本上是测试性考试,目的是检测掌握知识的程度,查缺补漏。
College Entrance Examination is a selective examination. Its purpose is to stratify the candidates according to their grades, so as to facilitate the selection of colleges and universities. Usual tests or simulations are basically test-oriented examinations, the purpose of which is to test the degree of mastery of knowledge and to check for gaps and omissions.
因此,没有深刻领悟、精做与高考平行的选拔性试卷,就常常会在高考中丢“不该丢”的分。
Therefore, without a profound understanding and elaborate selection papers parallel to the college entrance examination, we often lose the "should not lose" score in the college entrance examination.

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4.考纲的内容每大块都要覆盖,而且要注重交叉,各有侧重
4. The content of the syllabus should be covered in every block, and the emphasis should be laid on cross-cutting, with different emphasis.
经常某道题的考点罗列及援引要比考题本身要长,并且绝对绝对不会出现超纲内容,这就要求命题人员要有极高的理论知识,不是简简单单说把考纲背下来就可以的。
Often, the listing and quotation of the test points of a certain question is longer than the test itself, and absolutely no content beyond the outline will appear. This requires the propositioner to have very high theoretical knowledge, not simply to recite the test outline.
5.难易度适宜,并且可以拉开档次
5. The difficulty is suitable and the grade can be opened.
每年的平均分,每道题的分数段,客观题的得分率,一定要有具体的预测值,而且要对比往年。
The average score of each year, the fraction of each question and the scoring rate of objective questions must have specific predictive values and be compared with previous years.
一般来说,所谓的“难一年易一年”也是存在这个考量的。不过这个难易程度很主观,平均分才是客观的。具体到数学这科,平均分误差在三分以内。
Generally speaking, the so-called "difficult year easy year" also exists this consideration. However, the degree of difficulty is subjective, and the average score is the most objective. As for mathematics, the average score error is less than three points.
对于命题组而言,考生个人分数不重要,群体的平均分才是考量的重点,试卷出来,平均分也基本定了。
For the proposition group, the examinee's personal score is not important, the group's average score is the focus of consideration. When the paper comes out, the average score is basically fixed.
根据每年的平均分,每道题的平均分,每道题的分数段,客观题的得分率,一定会有具体的预测,而且会对比往年。
According to the average score of each year, the average score of each question, the fraction of each question and the scoring rate of objective questions, there will be a specific prediction, and it will be compared with previous years.
6.“反押题”贯穿命题始终
6. "Anti-hypothesis" runs through the whole proposition
高考命题组对高考教辅和网上押题信息的掌握,可以说是全面的。出题的地方会有各种教辅资料以及官方教材。这些资料的主要作用并不是方便命题人员开阔思路,而是防止所出题目出现重复,尤其是后面的计算大题。
College Entrance Examination Proposition Group is the most comprehensive way to grasp the information of college entrance examination teaching aids and online problem-setting. There will be various teaching aids and official textbooks in the places where the questions are given. The main function of these materials is not to facilitate the propositioners to broaden their thinking, but to prevent the repetition of the questions, especially the later calculation problems.
某种思路一定不能被前人所用。如果命题过程中,有人提出某题和市面上某题差不多,那就一定要该题找出来,此题就不用。
Certain ideas must not be used by predecessors. If in the process of proposition, someone puts forward a question which is similar to a question on the market, then it must be found out, and this question is not needed.
从出题到题目的标点符号,包括题目是否可能出现歧义,出题的顺序都要反复商榷,命题组一般会有两三个通宵不眠夜
The order of punctuation from the title to the title, including the possibility of ambiguity, should be debated repeatedly. There are usually two or three sleepless nights in the proposition group.
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